Village of Skokie v. National Socialist Party of America
On April 28, 1977, Skokie Corporation Counsel Harvey Schwartz and David Goldberger of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) argue Village of Skokie v. National Socialist Party of America in Cook County Circuit Court.
Schwartz cites the large Jewish population in Skokie and the significant number of Holocaust survivors as well as a campaign of harassing phone calls from NSPA of America members to Skokie residents.
"By reason of the ethnic and religious composition of the Village of Skokie...the public display of the swastika in connection with the proposed activities of the...National Socialist Party of America constitutes a symbolic assault against large numbers of the residents...and an incitation to violence and retaliation"
On April 29, 1977, Cook County Circuit Court Judge Joseph Wosik issues a preliminary injunction prohibiting members of the NSPA from demonstrating in Skokie on May 1, 1977.
Wosik states, “I believe I have just as much right to protect life and limb as to protect the First Amendment rights of the Nazis to free speech.”
Frank Collin re-schedules his rally for April 30.
Late on the night before the newly scheduled April 30, 1977 rally, Harvey Schwartz goes to Circuit Court Judge Harold Sullivan's home in Skokie and requests that the injunction be broadened to include any other date.
Judge Sullivan agrees and the neo-Nazi demonstration is barred only hours before it is scheduled to occur.
On May 18, 1977, Illinois Appellate Court Judge Meyer Goldberg upholds Circuit Court Judge Joseph Wosik’s injunction preventing Frank Collin and the NSPA from marching in Skokie.
The ACLU Union appeals to the Illinois Supreme Court to lift the injunction.
On June 8, 1977, the Illinois Appellate Court lifts the injunction preventing Nazis from demonstrating, but Judges McGloon, Goldberg, and O’Connor rule that the presence of the swastika constitutes deliberate provocation of violence.
On January 27, 1978, the Illinois Supreme Court lifts the remainder of the injunction banning a NSPA Nazi demonstration in Skokie.