Browse Exhibits (3 total)
During 1977 and 1978, a small group of neo-Nazis based in Chicago attempted to hold a rally in the Village of Skokie, Illinois. Local officials resisted the group’s efforts by passing a series of ordinances aimed at preventing distribution of hate materials, parading in military costumes, and then obliging parade organizers to obtain an insurance bond before a permit would be issued.
The ordinances were ultimately overturned following a series of state and federal lawsuits because they infringed on the group’s First Amendment rights and the neo-Nazis were issued a permit to demonstrate in Skokie. However, instead of facing the growing number of organized counter-demonstrators, the group held rallies in Federal Plaza and in Marquette Park in Chicago.
The decision to target Skokie was controversial because the Village was home to a large population of Jewish people and many survivors of the Holocaust who were afraid that history was repeating itself. Village officials, citizens of Skokie, community religious leaders, and people from across the United States offered advice on the best way to thwart the impact that a neo-Nazi demonstration would have on the community.
Skokie Public Library's digital collection includes news articles and editorials from local newspapers, recordings from the Skokie Village Board of Trustees meetings, a memoir written by a local clergywoman, correspondence, press releases, and court documents from the time, two documentary films, as well as newspaper coverage of the made-for-television film, Skokie, which broadcast in 1981.
Many of the materials are presented here to tell the story as it unfolded, but more materials can be found if browse the entire collection. For further information, you can find other materials in the library and other resources online. If you have questions, comments, or materials to contribute, send us an email or call us at 847-673-3733.
By the midpoint of the 20th century, the village of Skokie, Illinois found itself undergoing enormous changes. The population of Skokie in 1960 was 59,364, a 300% increase from its population just ten years prior, and as a result, constructing, selling and maintaining adequate housing was of utmost relevance to Skokie residents as well as the local government. Simultaneously, issues of segregation and discrimination towards people of color, particularly the Black* community, were growing ever more present in the daily lives of Americans as the Civil Rights Movement began to gain steam.
Like many suburban communities, Skokie struggled with issues of segregation and discrimination. For example, a pamphlet in this exhibit written by Skokie’s East Side Property Owners’ Association in 1940 clearly indicates that membership would only be extended to White men over the age of 21. While Illinois and thus Skokie did not suffer from the draconian and racist de jure segregation of the Jim Crow era, there were no laws explicitly prohibiting discrimination and segregation either, leaving Skokie’s predominantly White population to decide on an individual basis whether or not Black people were welcome in their neighborhoods and community organizations.
While discrimination and racism had been pervasive in Skokie for decades prior, the need for a Commission that would address interracial relations did not reveal itself until January 31, 1961. On that date, Mr. and Mrs. David P. Jones moved into a home on Kildare Avenue in northeastern Skokie; they were the first Black family to ever purchase property in the village. Sentiments towards the Joneses were decidedly mixed -- notably, their house was vandalized in April of that year -- and it seemed possible that a wave of “panic selling” could soon take hold as it had in other suburbs which had attracted non-White families, in which the White residents all would attempt to sell their homes simultaneously, causing property values to plummet and furthering segregation.
In response, that same year, the Village of Skokie established the Skokie Human Relations Commission (SHRC). The Commission was created to serve two purposes according to its charter:
(1) To encourage understanding and respect between residents of Skokie of various racial, religious and nationality backgrounds.’
(2) To safeguard the rights of all citizens as defined by our Ordinances, Statutes and Constitution.
The organization was modeled after the Niles Township Human Relations Council, which had served a similar purpose of easing racial tensions in the greater Skokie Valley region. In addition, Chicago and several of its suburbs were beginning to consider fair housing legislation in order to promote integration and growth. In response to this and as part of their larger mission, the SHRC, led in part by Donald P. Perille, whose records constitute a large portion of this collection, created the Skokie Plan, put into action in late 1965. The Skokie Plan invited real estate brokers to voluntarily sign on to use nondiscriminatory practices when showing homes. While the Skokie Plan appeared to be successful, with about 80% of Skokie real estate brokers agreeing to the plan, studies showed that it was not nearly as effective as official nondiscriminatory housing legislation would be. As such, Perille along with Dr. Herman S. Bloch worked to draft a Fair Housing Ordinance (FHO) over the first half of 1967. Around the same time, Perille traveled to Springfield to advocate for ISB155, a fair housing law for the state of Illinois, which would eventually be passed in 1968.
On July 18th, 1967, an open town hall was held for community members to weigh in on the legislation. While the response, especially from Skokie’s large Jewish community, was mostly positive, there were some detractors, arguing that they had the right to sell their homes to whomever they chose, and some real estate brokers argued the law would hurt their business. In the end, the FHO was passed and became Skokie law on January 1st, 1968.
To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the passing of the FHO, Skokie Public Library has curated this digital exhibit from its larger digital archive of materials relating to the FHO. Some residents of Skokie may find it hard to believe that just 50 years ago, it was a controversial stance to support fair housing and integration in our now very diverse community. Today, over 90 languages are spoken in homes in Skokie, and much of Skokie's diverse and multicultural heritage can be attributed to the village's proactive approach towards integration. The notes, documents and correspondence included in this exhibit, as well as the historical anecdotes of Black Skokie residents such as Gwendoline Fortune, serve to prove the difficulty and importance of achieving racial equality in our community.
* - For this collection, the librarians responsible have chosen to capitalize the terms Black and White as suggested by the Diversity Style Guide (Center for Integration and Improvement of Journalism at San Francisco State University).